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-Win32 API

Master Index

This is an index into the C Programming Reference Guide. It is probably not complete. If you dont find something in here - don't give up, try another route and if you find it, add it to this index.


% format identifer. 
% Operator (modulo). 
+ Operator (addition). 
- Operator (Subtraction). 
/ Operator (division). 
/* Open a comment. 
// Inline comment (C++).
* Operator (Multiplication). 
* width/percision formating character. 
* Pointer operator (Unary). 
*/ Close a comment. 
-- Operator (decrement). 
++ Operator (increment). 
= Operator (Assignment, Equals). 
*= Operator. 
/= Operator. 
%= Operator.
+= Operator. 
-= Operator. 
<<= Operator.
>>= Operator.
&= Operator. 
^= Operator. 
|= Operator.
== Operator. 
!= Operator. 
> Operator. 
< Operator.
>= Operator.
<= Operator. 
&& Operator. 
|| Operator. 
! Operator. 
& Reference Variables (C++).
& Bitwise AND Operator (binary). 
| Bitwise OR Operator (binary). 
^ Operator. 
<< Shift Left Operator. 
>> Shift Right Operator. 
~ Operator. 
& Address of Operator (Unary). 
? Operator. 
: Operator. 
. Operator (structure member). 
-> Operator (structure pointer). 
... in function declarations. 
, Comma Operator. 


#include preprocessor 
#define preprocessor 
#if preprocessor 
#ifdef preprocessor 
#ifndef preprocessor 
#line preprocessor 
#undef preprocessor 
#pragma preprocessor 
#else preprocessor 
#error preprocessor 
#elif preprocessor 
#endif preprocessor  


abort a program. 
abs function. Aboslute value of an integer. 
acos function. 
AND Operator. 
ANSI Standard headers
Archive libraries. 
Arithmetic Operators 
Arrarys of Structures
Array sorting 
Assignment Operators 
Ascii table. 
asctime function 
asin function. 
assert function. 
Assignment Constructors C++ class
atan function. 
atan function. 
atexit Execute the named function when the program terminates. 
atoi Accepts +-0123456789 leading blanks and converts to integer. 
Audible Alert \a 
auto keyword. 


Backspace \b 
Base conversion. 
basename strip directory information from a file name. 
Bell \a 
Binary formating problem. 
Bitwise Operators
Book list
bool datatype (C++). 
break keyword. 
bsearch function. 


Carriage Return \r 
case keyword. 
ceil function. 
Change working directory. 
close function. 
closedir function. 
%c Character formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
char keyword. 
Character arrays 
Character Constants. 
Character I/P & O/P in files.
chdir function. 
class C++ keyword 
class Inheritance(C++)
class keyword (C++)
clock function. 
clrscr Clear screen 
clrscr Program to clear the screen using VT escape sequence.
Coding idioms. 
Comma operator. 
Command line arguments
C Comments. 
Comments in C++. 
Comman coding errors. 
Compare strings
Compare strings ignoring case. 
Compiler Error messages (GCC)
Completion codes
Concatenate strings. 
const keyword.
const keyword. In classes
constructors C++ class
continue keyword. 
Conversion table between ASCII Binary, Decimal, Hex 
Convert Unix file to DOS format
Convert Unix path names to DOS path names.
Copy Constructors C++ class
Copy strings. 
Copy a file. 
Create Environmental variables. 
ctime function 


Data types
Data type conversion
Date functions. 
%d Decimal formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
Decimal Ascii table. 
Default Constructors C++ class
Default Parameter values. (C++)
default keyword. 
#define Preprocessor 
delete C++. 
Destructors C++ class
difftime function. 
Directory access functions. 
Directory information stipped from a file name. 
do keyword. 
Domain name. 
double keyword. 
Download the source. 
dup duplicate a file descriptor. 
dup2 duplicate a file descriptor. 
dynamically allocate memory. 
dynamic libraries


%e formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
#elif preprocessor 
#else preprocessor 
else keyword. 
#edif preprocessor 
endpwent function. 
enum keyword. 
enum. C++ changes.
environ example. 
errno.h ANSI header. 
#error preprocessor 
escape codes. 
Environmental variables. 
Evaluation of operators.  
Example programs. 
execl function. 
execlp function. 
execle function. 
exect function. 
execv function. 
execvp function. 
exit function. 
extern keyword. 


File descriptor 
%f formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
fabs function. 
fclose Close a file. 
feof Check for EOF while reading a file. 
fgetc Read a character from a file. 
fgetpwent function. 
field width. (printf, scanf etc) 
File status, permissions, ownership etc. 
Float arrays 
float keyword. 
float.h ANSI header. 
Floating point Constants. 
floor function. 
fopen Open a file   
format flags. (printf, scanf etc) 
fork a child process. 
Formfeed \f Read a record from a file (safer than fgetc). 
for keyword 
formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
fprintf O/P a line of data to a file. 
fputc Write a character to a file.
friend C++ keyword.
free function to release memory allocated with malloc. 
fputs Write a string to a file. 
fstat File status, permissions, ownership etc. 
functions writing. 
functions ANSI library. 
Function Overloading. (C++)
Functions (pointers to)
Functions (static)
static functions in C++.  


%g formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
GDB debugger 
getenv Get an environmental variable. 
getchar Get a character from the keyboard (STDIN). 
getc Get a character from an input stream. 
getch function. 
getche function. 
geteuid function. Get a Users effective ID. 
gethostname function. Get the name of this host! 
getopt function. Parse the command line. 
getpid function. Get the process id. 
getppid function. Get the parent process id. 
getpw function. 
getpwent function. 
getpwnam Get a record from /etc/passwd by keying on the user name. 
getpwuid Get a record from /etc/passwd by keying on the UID. 
gets function. Get string (from keyboard). 
getuid function. Get a Users real ID. 
Global variables. 
Glossary (C) 
Glossary (C++) 
gmtime function 
goto keyword. 
Got Ya! Comman coding errors. 
GREP command for DOS users. 
Group ID. 


Headers (standard). 
Hex base conversion. 
Hex dump program. 
Hex table. 
Hex Character constant \x 
Hex formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
Horizontal tab \t 
Host name via the  uname function. 
Host name via the  gethostname function. 


%i Decimal formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
#include Preprocessor 
#if preprocessor 
#ifdef preprocessor 
#ifndef preprocessor 
if keyword. 
index Search for a character in a string. 
inline C++ keyword.
Inheritance (C++)
input from the keyboard 
int keyword. 
Integer arrays 
Integer Constants. 
integer formatting. 
input from the keyboard 
int keyword. 
Integer arrays 
Integer Constants. 
integer formatting. 
isalnum Checks whether a character is alphanumeric (A-Z, a-z, 0-9) 
iscntrl Checks whether a character is a control character or delete ( decimal 0-31 and 127) 
isdigit Checks whether a character is a digit (0-9) 
isgraph Checks whether a character is a printable character, excluding the space (decimal 32) 
islower Checks whether a character is a lower case letter (a-z). 
isprint Checks whether a character is printable (decimal 32-126). 
ispunct Checks whether a character is punctuation (decimal 32-47, 58-63, 91-96, 123-126) 
isspace Checks whether a character is white space - space, CR HT VT NL, FF. 
isupper Checks whether a character is an upper case letter (A-Z). 
isxdigit Checks whether a character is hex digit (0-9, A-F, a-f). 




keyboard input. 
Keywords added to C++ 
kill a process.  


labs function. 
libraries (user) 
limits.h ANSI header. 
#line preprocessor 
Linked lists 
locale.h ANSI header. 
Local variables. 
localtime function. 
Logical AND Operator. 
Logical OR Operator. 
long keyword. 
setjmp.h ANSI header. 
Love Tim Love's C programming documentation. 
Low level I/O
Lowercase to uppercase character conversion. 
lstat function. Get file status, permissions, ownership etc.  


Machine type. 
malloc function to dynamically allocate memory. 
member of a structure
memchr function. 
memcmp function. 
memcpy function. 
memove function. 
memset function. 
mkdir function. 
mktime function. 
Mirror sites. 


%n formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
namespace C++ keyword.
new C++.
Newline \n 
NOT Operator. 
Number base conversion. 
Number base converter. 
Nutshell book examples. 


%o Octal formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
\o Octal Character constant 
open function. 
opendir function. 
operator C++ keyword.
Operator Precedence
Operand definition. 
OR Operator. 
O'Reilly books. 
Overloading Functions. (C++)


%p formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
password functions. 
pclose Close a pipe. 
perl in C code
pipe function. 
Pointers to arrays. 
Pointers to functions
Pointers to pointers
Pointers to Strings
Pointers to structures
pointer (void)
popen Open a pipe. 
pow raise a number by a given power. 
Practical C (O'Reilly) examples. 
#pragma preprocessor 
Precedence of operators. 
Preprocessor instructions 
printenv program. 
printf O/P data to the screen or a file. 
Problems for you to solve. 
Process ID. 
Process - is a PID active? 
Program examples. 
Program name. 
putc(int c, FILE *stream)  Write c to FILE and return it.
putchar(int c). Write character to STDOUT. 
putenv Create an environmental variable. 
puts(char *s) Write string to STDOUT. 


qsort O'Reilly 'Using C' example. 


\r Carriage Return 
rand function. 
random numbers. 
RAND_MAX numbers. 
read function. 
readdir function. 
Read data from a file. 
Reference Variables (C++).  
register keyword.
Relational Operators
Remote Procedure Calls
rename function. Rename a file.
Return code.
return keyword. 
reverse Program to reverse characters in a string.
rewinddir function.
rint function.
rmdir function.
RPC Remote Procedure CAlls  


S_ISLNK Is this a link.
S_ISREG Is this a regular file.
S_ISDIR Is this a directory
%s String formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
scandir function. 
seekdir function. 
setenv Create an environmental variable. 
setjmp.h ANSI header. 
setpwent function. 
setuid function. 
short keyword. 
signal.h ANSI header. 
signed keyword. 
sizeof. Return the storage allocation for a  data type. 
sleep function. Pause for the specified number of seconds. 
sort an array. 
sprintf O/P data in tha same way as 'printf' but put it into a string. 
sqrt Square root of a number. 
srand function. 
sscanf function. 
Standard C++ Library
Standard headers
Standard headers
stat function. Get file status, permissions, ownership etc. 
statfs function. Get filesystem status, free blocks, block size etc. 
static keyword. 
static in C++.
static libraries
stdarg.h ANSI header. 
stddef.h ANSI header. 
Storage clase.
strcat function. Concatenate strings. 
strcasecmp Compare strings ignoring case. 
strchr Search for a character in a string. 
strcmp Compare strings. 
strcoll function. Compare two strings. 
strcpy Move strings. 
strcspn function. Search a string for a set of characters. 
strftime function. 
String Constants. 
String pointers
String formating
strncat function. Concatenate strings. 
strncmp Compare strings. 
strncpy Copy N bytes from one string to another. 
strpbrk function 
strrchr Search for a character in a string. 
strrchr function. 
strspn function. 
strstr function. Search a string for a substring. 
strtok function. The books say this function splits a string into tokens. I think its function is best described as parsing a string. 
strtol Convert String to a long integer. 
struct keyword. 
Structure arrays
Structure basics
Structure membership
Structure pointers
strxfrm function. 
swap two values. 
switch keyword. 
system Issue a system command. 
system calls
system information


\t Horizontal tab 
telldir function. 
time functions. 
time.h header.  
tolower function. Convert an uppercase character to lowercase. 
toupper function. Converts a lowercase character to uppercase. 
Tutorials on the net
Data type conversion
typedef keyword. 


%u formatting. 
uname function. 
#undef preprocessor 
union keyword. 
unistd header. 
Unix to DOS file conversion
unlink function, delete a file. 
unsetenv function. Remove an environmental variable. 
unsigned keyword. 
unsigned integer formatting. 
Uppercase to lowercase character conversion. 
Users /etc/passwd entry. 
Using C (O'Reilly) examples. 


Variable definition. 
Variable function parameter lists 
Variables - Reference(C++).
Vertical tab \v 
vfprintf. Print a va_list to a file. 
vprintf. Print a va_list 
vsprintf. O/P a va_list into a string. 
void keyword. 
void *(void pointer). 
volatile keyword.


Width of a field. (printf, scanf etc) 
while keyword. 
Why use pointers?
write function. 
Write data to a file. 


\x Hex Character constant 
%x Hex formatting (printf, scanf etc) 
X program examples.





Top  Master Index  Keywords  Functions 

Martin Leslie

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