to change b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0 to b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7.
256 byte lookup table
Total Program Instructions: 2 + 256 Total Instructions Executed: 2
A small, slower approach is to rotate the source byte right one bit (putting the rightmost bit in the carry flag), then rotate the destination byte left one bit (putting the carry flag in the rightmost bit of your destination register). Repeat this cycle 8 times. Your destination byte will have to be a temp register. Enter with byte to be reversed in WREG, exits with reversed byte in WREG. Reverse is trashed.
;************************************** ;SPIN by Jim Robertson ;enter byte to reverse in abuff. ;exit with reversed byte in bbuff ;KnownZero must be zero of course. Code will leave knownZero as 0 ;(Do NOT use with interrupt driven code that may use KnownZero!) bsf KnownZero,3 ;count = 8 yyr6 rrf abuff rlf bbuff decfsz KnownZero goto yyr6 Total Program Instructions: 5 Total Instructions Executed: 26
This can, of course, be unrolled for faster execution at the cost of more code space.
RevWReg: rlcf WREG,f ; W = d6 d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 d0 C {C = d7} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d7 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1 {C = R0} rlcf WREG,f ; W = d5 d4 d3 d2 d1 d0 C R0 {C = d6} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d6 d7 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 {C = R1} rlcf WREG,f ; W = d4 d3 d2 d1 d0 C R0 R1 {C = d5} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d5 d6 d7 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 {C = R2} rlcf WREG,f ; W = d3 d2 d1 d0 C R0 R1 R2 {C = d4} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d4 d5 d6 d7 R7 R6 R5 R4 {C = R3} rlcf WREG,f ; W = d2 d1 d0 C R0 R1 R2 R3 {C = d3} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 R7 R6 R5 {C = R4} rlcf WREG,f ; W = d1 d0 C R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 {C = d2} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 R7 R6 {C = R5} rlcf WREG,f ; W = d0 C R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 {C = d1} rrcf Reverse,f ; Rev = d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 R7 {C = R6} rlcf WREG,f ; W = C R0 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 {C = d0} rrcf Reverse,w ; W = d0 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 {C = R7} return
Mike Harrison says:
.. or if you're short of registers, how about this :movlw 080 movwf dest loop rlf src rrf dest skpc ; loop until marker bit falls out the end goto loop
; Input X = abcdefgh , Output X = hgfedcba ; Written by Dmitry A. Kiryashov 2000 ; 12 clocks/words reverse8bit: swapf X,W ;efghabcd xorwf X,W ;efghabcd ;abcdefgh andlw 0x66 ;.fg..bc. ;.bc..fg. xorwf X,F ;afgdebch ; rrf X,W rrf X,F ;hafgdebc ; andlw 0x55 ;.a.g.e.c addwf X,F ;h.f.d.b. ;a.g.e.c. rrf X,F ;.h.f.d.b ;.a.g.e.c addwf X,F ;ahgfedcb ; rlf X,W rlf X,F ;hgfedcba ;it can be replaced ;with rlf X,W ;if necessary... Total Program Instructions: 7 + 19 Total Instructions executed: 13 eg. movf original,w call rev_nibble movwf result swapf result,f swapf original,w call rev_nibble iorwf result,f rev_nibble andlw 0x0F addwf pcl,f retlw 00 ;0000 -> 0000 retlw 08 ;0001 -> 1000 retlw 04 ;0010 -> 0100 retlw 0C ;0011 -> 1100 retlw 02 ;0100 -> 0010 retlw 0B ;0101 -> 1010 retlw 06 ;0110 -> 0110 retlw 0E ;0111 -> 1110 retlw 01 ;1000 -> 0001 retlw 09 ;1001 -> 1001 retlw 05 ;1010 -> 0101 retlw 0D ;1011 -> 1101 retlw 03 ;1100 -> 0011 retlw 0B ;1101 -> 1011 retlw 07 ;1110 -> 0111 retlw 0F ;1111 -> 1111
Mike Keitz says:
My challenge elicited many interesting results. For the benefit of those trying to lurk and learn, I'll summarize and try to explain. My apologies to any of the contributors I inadvertently don't give credit to.There were 3 basic approaches to the problem, of which 2 are rather obvious and the third (maybe best) is obscure. The first approach is to shift bits out of the source bit LSB first and assemble them into the destination byte MSB first, like my hastily coded example did.
One problem with this is that the PIC shift instructions work only on RAM, not on the W register. So it's necessary to use two RAM bytes to process the results. Either a loop or an inline construct can be used to do the shifting. Since each shift is only 2 instructions / 2 cycles, the overhead in controlling the loop is the majority of processing time. But my application has a lot of time, so this isn't a problem. I liked Mike Harrison's solution using one of the bits in the destination to control the loop:
; Code based on Mike Harrison's entry: movwf src ;Store source movlw b'00000010' ;When the 1 falls out, done. movwf dest loop rrf src ;Take a bit out of src rlf dest ;and put it into dest skpc ;Did the 1 come out yet? goto loop ;No, do another bit. movfw dest ;Load result into W return ;and returnThis routine is the best in terms of code words used: only 9. But it takes 7 trips through the loop to convert a character. Scott Dattalo claims that the shifting technique can be used in a pipeline fashion to convert two bytes at once. I'll take his word for it.
The next major approach I'll call the brute-force bit assembly technique. This uses bit tests of the source byte in RAM to OR bits into the proper positions in W. Most responders noticed that bit 3 is already in the proper position, so only 6 test/sets are required. Dimtry further refined the concept, realizing that using a swapf instruction on the byte would land 2 bits in the proper positions at the outset. This solution is decent, but holds no special advantage over the xor method which John Payson developed later in the game.
The xor method can be described as follows: Two bits A and B need to be reversed. They are in a byte AB. If A and B are both 1, or both 0, the byte doesn't need to be changed. If A and B are different, inverting both A and B will reverse them.
00 -> 00, 01 -> 10, 10 -> 01, 11 -> 11The core of Payson's xor method works on pairs of bits. It xors the two source bits with each other to see if a change should be made. And it xors both bits (in W) with 1 if they are to be changed. This takes 4 PIC instructions (example is for bits 0 and 1):
btfsc src,0 xorlw b'11' btfsc src,1 xorlw b'11'If both source bits are 0, then neither xorlw executes, so W is unchanged. If both source bits are 1, then both xorlw's execute, causing both bits in W to remain at 1. If one bit is 1 and the other 0, then one xor executes. This inverts both bits in W, reversing them.
To reverse a 7 bit value, 3 pairs of bits need to be reversed. A direct application of the xor method takes 12 instructions (plus a couple to store and remove from RAM). Dmitry noticed again that a swapf instruction would place 2 bits in proper position, though it would move the fourth bit "D" (which doesn't need to move) out of position. Repairing this, then reversing the 2 remaining pairs of bits with the xor method, still saves a cycle over John's method. Dmitry's code, with my comments, is below.
movwf source ;source = 0ABCDEFG swapf source,w ;W= DEFG0ABC btfsc source,3 ; If D = 1, xorlw 0x88 ;convert now sure W= 0EFGDABC btfsc source,6 ;Test bit A xorlw 0x05 ;Invert bits A and C btfsc source,4 ;Test bit C xorlw 0x05 ;Invert bits A and C ;now W = 0EFGDCBA btfsc source,2 ;Do the same with E and G xorlw 0x50 btfsc source,0 xorlw 0x50 ;so now W = 0GFEDCBA (done) returnThis looks about the best if speed is critical. As a final thought on the matter, notice that the reversed result xor the starting value is always of the form 0abc0cba. There are only 8 ways to do the reverse. Bits abc are calculated as A xor G, B xor F, and C xor E. If there is an easy way to do this calculation and set up 0abc0cba in W, then a xorwf could reverse the bits in one fell swoop. Offhand, I couldn't find a way that does this faster than Dmitry's though. Maybe a small table could be of use.
Nikolai Golovchenko says
;From the practical point of view, it's better to have ability to ;reassign pins in any order. I use pins masks always - it's easier to ;route PCB then. cblock In Out endc #define A_MASK 1 #define B_MASK 2 #define C_MASK 4 #define D_MASK 8 #define E_MASK 16 #define F_MASK 32 #define G_MASK 64 #define H_MASK 128 clrw btfsc In, 7 iorlw A_MASK btfsc In, 6 iorlw B_MASK btfsc In, 5 iorlw C_MASK btfsc In, 4 iorlw D_MASK btfsc In, 3 iorlw E_MASK btfsc In, 2 iorlw F_MASK btfsc In, 1 iorlw G_MASK btfsc In, 0 iorlw H_MASK movwf Out
Comments:
I'm totally new at this and I haven't yet tested my code, but I came up with this concept for word reversal before discovering this page and I can't see why it wouldn't work. It is for a PIC 16F870 with 4MHz crystal. It takes 2n+1 instructions, n being the number of bits you want to change, and one register file large enough to hold them.+
The idea is to first clear all bits (assign a value of 0) in the target word (the one which will end up reversed). You then use the PIC's bit test instruction (btfsc) to check each bit of the source word one at a time, to see if that bit is already a zero. If it is, you skip the next instruction, which is an unconditional bit set (bsf) pointing to the desired bit of the target word. Since you started out by filling the target word with 0s, you only need to use the bit-set instruction on those bits in the source word that contain 1s. And since each of these instructions is bit-specific, you can stuff the bits into the target word in any order you want, allowing word-reversal. My code is:
clrf targetword
btfsc sourceword,7
bsf targetword,0
btfsc sourceword,6
bsf targetword,1
btfsc sourceword,5
bsf targetword,2
btfsc sourceword,4
bsf targetword,3
btfsc sourceword,3
bsf targetword,4
btfsc sourceword,2
bsf targetword,5
btfsc sourceword,1
bsf targetword,6
btfsc sourceword,0
bsf targetword,7; the register "targetword" now contains a reversed version of the register "sourceword"
It seems to me that the execution speed will depend on the number of 1s and 0s in the source word. If you know that it's likely to contain more 1s than 0s most of the time, you could probably speed it up by first setting the target word to all 1s instead of all 0s, then using the btfss and bcf instructions instead of the btfsc and bsf instructions as above. The concept is the same.
It also seems to me that this scheme can be used to create an ordered byte out of randomly-assigned I/O pins, making it easier to do board layouts. But again, I'm a complete newbie at this and I might be missing something. Please let me know if I am!
-Craig Haggart
Sunnyvale, California
haggart@slac.stanford.edu
There is another method for reverse bit order in a byte that doesn't seem to be covered on this page http://www.piclist.com/techref/microchip/math/bit/revbits.htm and that's using hardware. Why not wire B0-B7 to C7-C0 respectively and execute the following: movf in,w movwf portc ; assuming that it is already set as output [nop] ; may not be necessary movf portb,w ; assuming that it is already set as input movwf out Presto! Only 4-5 instructions and no extra RAM required. regards, Regan Ryan
Christopher Wall Says:
I think one correction needs to be made to the following "Middle" method by Dmitry A. Kiryashov. As it is right now, it doesn't work when both 'a' and 'h' are '1'.+
Example:; instruction X W CarryBit 1010 0011 xxxx xxxx x swapf X,W 1010 0011 0011 1010 x xorwf X,W 1010 0011 1001 1001 x andlw 0x66 1010 0011 0000 0000 x xorwf X,F 1010 0011 0000 0000 x rrf X,W 1010 0011 1101 0001 x rrf X,F 1101 0001 1101 0001 x andlw 0x55 1101 0001 0101 0001 x addwf X,F 0010 0010 0101 0001 1 rrf X,F 0001 0001 0101 0001 1 addwf X,F 0110 0010 0101 0001 1 rlf X,W 0110 0010 1100 0100 1 rlf X,F 1100 0100 1100 0100 10b11000100 is not the reverse of 0b10100011 By changing the last "rrf" instruction to a rrcf (rotate file right through carry) this now opperated correctly:; instruction X W CarryBit 1010 0011 xxxx xxxx x swapf X,W 1010 0011 0011 1010 x xorwf X,W 1010 0011 1001 1001 x andlw 0x66 1010 0011 0000 0000 x xorwf X,F 1010 0011 0000 0000 x rrf X,W 1010 0011 1101 0001 x rrf X,F 1101 0001 1101 0001 x andlw 0x55 1101 0001 0101 0001 x addwf X,F 0010 0010 0101 0001 1 rrcf X,F 1001 0001 0101 0001 0 addwf X,F 1110 0010 0101 0001 0 rlf X,W 1110 0010 1100 0101 0 rlf X,F 1100 0100 1100 0101 0
file: /Techref/microchip/math/bit/revbits.htm, 16KB, , updated: 2017/8/31 09:45, local time: 2023/2/4 10:16, |
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